Access to Clean Water in Africa

Description You are a global health consultant hired by USAID to make evidence-based recommendations on the development of a program to address the critical health problem of access to clean water in Africa. You may select the country context. Section 1: Problem Description You must first describe the problem using available literature and data sources. What is the nature of the problem? Who is affected by it? What factors contribute to the problem? If the problem were to improve, how would we know? 1.1. Define the assigned problem and discuss why it is important to global public health. 1.2. Report on the estimated prevalence of the problem globally, regionally (e.g., Africa), and within your specific geographic area (e.g., Ghana), and mortality, morbidity, and other estimates (e.g., DALYs) if available and relevant. 1.3. Discuss the most basic immediate (proximal) causes of the problem in physiological, environmental, behavioral or other terms (e.g., diarrhea is caused by ingestion of a minimum quantity of pathogenic organisms; vitamin A deficiency is caused by inadequate intake or absorption, often following an illness that produced an increased need for the micronutrient) 1.4. Identify any important relationships between this condition and other problems (e.g., pneumonia is a common complication of measles), and other information relevant to understanding the nature of the problem (e.g., environmental or cultural factors that significantly increase risk). Section 2: Interventions Describe the major evidence-based intervention(s) that currently addresses this problem in your chosen setting. Consider possible evidence-based solutions to the problem, such as interventions that have been used or are in current use to address this problem. What does the literature suggest about the efficacy of these interventions for this problem in a resource-poor setting? 2.1. Discuss primary prevention approaches, if any, that are feasible and relatively efficient (primary prevention refers to action taken to stop the health problem from occurring in the first place). 2.2. Discuss secondary prevention approaches currently recommended for the problem (if relevant), including the specific therapeutic measures to be taken (if medication is indicated, the specific medication and dosage regimen most often recommended for field settings), and indications for referral to a higher level of care. Section 3: Conclusions and Recommendations Based on your understanding of the problem and what you now know about possible interventions, describe what you would recommend as the best evidence-based solution(s), and specifically state your reasons for this. Given what is being done now, what alternative intervention might you propose for this problem, or, what might you do differently to optimize the effectiveness of existing interventions? You should evaluate, compare, and contrast the existing interventions as the basis for proposing an optimum effective intervention. 3.1. Conclude with your evidence-based recommendations for programmatic interventions to address this problem. 3.2. Discuss any potential barriers to implementation anticipated in your chosen setting and suggestions on how to overcome these. Please use the following as a guide to the format requirements of your essay 1. You must use major sections and subsection headings to structure your essay in the order specified above. Example: 1. Problem Description 1.1. Define the problem and discuss why it is important to global public health “The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) considers obesity as a major global health challenge that requires immediate urgent attention due to its potential adverse impact on ………………………… “ 2. The paper should be a minimum of 9 pages (text), double‐spaced, formatted in Times New Roman font type, 12 point, with 1-inch margins on all sides. The page requirement does not include the cover page, graphs or illustrations, or references that you will use. 3. Please do not rely primarily on websites for your research. Your essay paper must have at least 6 peer‐reviewed citations (i.e., from peer-reviewed journals), and 3 news articles (from accredited news sources like the NY Times, not Buzzfeed) in addition to other sources such as books and reputable websites such as the WHO, CDC, PAHO, etc. 4. All content should be given a proper citation using the American Psychological Association official citation style (APA citation format). See this link from the UAA Library for APA citation help. 5. This paper is a professional document so it needs to be free of grammatical and spelling errors. It has to follow format and scientific/technical writing style as exemplified by recent articles published in the American Journal of Public Health, Social Science and Medicine, and similar public health and medical journals. 6. Include page numbers on each page.

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